verope® rope academy
Appropriate handling of special wire ropes
Do you want to learn everything about the technology of our ropes and how to handle them correctly?
We crated a collection of informative Videos that explain all you have to know to ensure the high quality of your verope® special wire rope.
Technical facts about special wire ropes
➜ Tech-Info 01:
Composition of a special wire rope
Every part that makes our ropes special
By the design of a wire rope, one understands the formation principle according to which the elements of the wire rope (the wires and the strands) are arranged relative to each other. The designation of a fiber core is FC, for an independent steel wire rope core it is IWRC. As an example all round strand ropes of the 6×19 Warrington design with a fiber core have the construction 6 x [1-6-(6-6)] – FC.
➜ Tech-Info 02:
Fill factor of a strand
what the fill factor number means
The fill factor of a strand is defined as the ratio of the metallic cross section (or as simplified calculation the sum of the single wire cross sections) related to the area of the smallest circle enclosing the strand. The fill factor specifies the amount of space which the strand takes in the rope meaning the quantity of steel. The fill factors of the most common strands are between 0,70 and 0,82. This means, that the amount of steel in the strand is about 70% to 82%. The fill factors of strands can be considerably increased by compacting. Usually the fill factor of a strand increases with an increasing number of wires. A Seale 15 strand (1-7-7) for example has a fill factor of about 0,77 and a Seale 19 strand (1-9-9) has a fill factor of about 0,79.
➜ Tech-Info 03:
Lay type of wire ropes
right or left hand lay is important for handling and using the rope
A distinction is made between right hand and left hand lay strands. The lay direction is left hand, when (moving away from the beholder) the wires are rotated counterclockwise. The lay direction of a strand is right hand, when its wires (moving away from the beholder) are rotated clockwise. The lay direction of a strand is often given by small s for the left hand lay strand and by a small z for the right hand lay strand.
➜ Tech-Info 04:
Fill factor of wire rope
The fill factor of a strand increases with an increasing number of wires.
The fill factor of a wire rope is understood to be the quotient of the metal cross-section of the rope (according to the definition, simplified as the sum of the individual wire cross-sections) in relation to the cross-section of the smallest of the smallest enveloping circle of the rope. The fill factor indicates what proportion of the space occupied by the wires and strands in the rope are filled with steel. The fill factors of the most common ropes are approximately between 0.46 and 0.75. This means that the proportion of steel to steel content of the rope volume is about 46% to 75% of the rope volume. Wire ropes with steel cores have higher fill factors than ropes with fiber cores. For example, a 6 x 25 Filler – FE rope has a fill factor 0.50, a 6 x 25 Filler – IWRC rope has a fill factor of 0.58.
➜ Tech-Info 05.1:
Strand construction of wire ropes pt. 1
What is the strand structure of wire ropes
The main types of strand construction are the one, two and three layer standard strands, as well as the parallel lay strands of the Seale, Filler, Warrington and Warrington-Seale construction types.The two and three layer standard strands have crossovers between the wires of the different wire layers. Here, the wire layers are stranded in separate operations in the same direction (abbreviation N) with the same stranding angle but different lay lengths. The so-called parallel lay strands (Seale, Filler, Warrington, Warrington-Seale) avoid the crossovers and instead create line contacts of the wires by stranding all wire layers with different stranding angles but the same lay length.
➜ Tech-Info 05.2:
Lay type of wire ropes
right or left hand lay is important for handling and using the rope
The make of a strand is the law of formation according to which the wires are arranged relative to each other. For example, all strands of the Seale type have the structure 1 – n – n (with n = 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 …). Wire layers which are stranded together in parallel in the same operation are connected by a minus sign ” – ” in the designation according to EN 12385-3. The designation of a Seale 17 strand is thus 1 – 8 – 8, the designation of a Seale 19 strand is 1 – 9 – 9.
➜ Tech-Info 06:
Wire rope diameter
A distinction is made between the nominal rope diameter and the actual rope diameter.
The nominal wire rope diameter is an agreed theoretical value for the diameter of the smallest circle enclosing the outer strands.The effective rope diameter, also called actual rope diameter, is the diameter of the smallest circle enclosing all outer strands, as measured on the rope itself. The tolerance range for the effective rope diameter is specified in related national and international standards. According to EN 12385-4 it is between -0% and +5% (for nominal rope diameters ≥ 8mm)This means that the effective rope diameter upon delivery must neither be smaller, nor 5% bigger than the nominal rope diameter.The tolerance range is often higher for smaller ropes like 3mm to 7mm nominal diameter.In the Oil and Gas industry, which is firmly based on US regulations, a tolerance range from -1% to +4% is applied.The effective rope diameter changes depending on the load applied. Therefore the effective rope diameter should in critical cases be measured on a rope that is loaded with 5% of the calculated breaking strength.
➜ Tech-Info 07:
Rope end connections and rope ends
What are the types of rope end connections
For some rope applications, e.g. pendant ropes, the rope length is essential. The following terms are used to describe the points of reference that are important to determine the rope length precisely. Some typical examples are added. By using the terms we want to make sure, that missunderstandings can be avoided. Besides the points of reference, the force under which the length must be correct shall also be determined by you. Without any information about the force, it is automatically assumed, that the length shall be correct at F = 0 kN. More detailed information about rope end connectors can be found here.
The correct handling of special wire ropes
➜ Lesson 01:
Correct transport of rope reels
Transporting and unloading wire ropes with care
Learn how to transport and store verope special wire ropes correctly.
The handling of wire rope reels requires a certain degree of caution. The reel should therefore be unloaded from the loading area either by means of a fork lift, where the reel is lifted by means of a sufficiently dimensioned shaft as attachment points for the forks, or by means of an overhead crane as described in the picture below. The wound reel of wire rope should be moved as described before. Reels can easily be knocked over by the forklift which may damage both the reel and wire rope, so it is not advisable to do so.
➜ Lesson 02:
Correct measurement of rope sheave groove profiles
How to correctly determine the rope sheave groove profile.
Learn how to correctly determine the diameter of the sheave profile.
➜ Lesson 03:
Correct measurement of rope diameter
How to correctly determine the diameter of a verope special wire rope.
Learn how to correctly determine the rope diameter of a verope special wire rope.
To determine the exact rope diameter, a measuring device designed for this purpose must be used. The measurement must always be made over the crests (outer envelope circle of the rope). Measuring in the strand valleys falsifies the result considerably. In the case of ropes with an uneven number of outer strands, care must be taken to ensure that the measuring surfaces extend over several strands.
➜ Lesson 04:
Correct storage of rope reels
The ideal storage of rope spools in dry conditions.
Learn how to properly store verope rope spools.
Wire ropes must be protected from dirt and moisture during storage. Ideally, this is done in suitable sheds. When stored, round reels must be secured against rolling away. When stored outdoors, the ropes must be protected as best as possible from moisture and other environmental influences. Please ensure that the rope reel cover is selected in such a way that the rope underneath is always sufficiently ventilated to prevent corrosion due to condensation. Please also do not place the rope reels directly on the floor, but better on a pallet or squared timber. Bare wire ropes should not be stored outdoors for long periods. In unfavorable storage conditions, e.g. high temperatures, it may be necessary to relubricate the ropes before use.
➜ Lesson 05:
Handling ropes during unwinding and rewinding
How to handle ropes correctly during unwinding and rewinding
Rope installation must always be carried out by experienced, instructed personnel. The following points must be observed: For ropes supplied on rings, rope spools must be mounted on suitable unwinding devices, e.g. turntables or winding stands. Under no circumstances should the rope be pulled out of the ring or drum. This will introduce twists into the rope! In some rope configurations, the new rope is pulled in with the help of the old rope, etc. You can find many more hints here.
➜ Lesson 06:
Proper handling of specialty wire ropes
Learn how to properly handle specialty wire rope.
General handling procedures on how to remove or not remove the rope from the reel are shown in the following video.
➜ Lesson 07:
The correct cutting of special wire ropes
How to cut a special wire rope correctly
Steel wire ropes consist of many strands closed in a helix and due to this structure ropes must be secured against untwisting. This is usually ensured by welding the ends together or by attaching a suitable end con-nection. If the rope is to be shortened from its original length, the rope must be secured on both sides of the desired cutting point. The pictures below show the use of seizing wire, which must be applied in order to secure. The length of the joint is defined as follows: L = 2 x rope diameter d
➜ Lesson 08:
Relubrication of special wire ropes
Frequency and amount of relubrication
In general, we recommend relubricating the rope 10 times over its entire service life. In applications with a comparably short service life (e.g. due to high and rapid wear), relubrication must be carried out as required. The amount of relubricant to be applied can be defined by the following equation:
(rope weight m/g x rope length m) / 100 = lubricant quantity kg