The calculated breaking strength of a steel wire rope is defined as the metallic cross section of a steel wire rope (the sum of the individual cross sections of all the wires making up the rope) multiplied by the nominal tensile strength of the steel wire rope. The minimum breaking strength of the steel wire rope is the calculated breaking strength of the rope multiplied by the spin factor.
The actual breaking strength of a steel wire rope is the breaking strength of the rope as determined in a pull test. A new steel wire rope must achieve an actual breaking strength equal to or higher than the minimum breaking strength. The breaking strength of a steel wire rope can be increased by increasing the metallic area of the rope (e.g. by using strands with higher fill factors, by compacting the strands or by swaging the rope), by increasing the tensile strengths of the individual wires or by increasing the spin factor of the rope. This can also be achieved by improving the contact conditions between the rope elements by using a plastic infill.
Bending fatigue resistance
The bending fatigue resistance of steel wire ropes is defined as the number of bending cycles a rope can achieve in a bending fatigue test under defined parameters (e.g. running over sheaves with a defined diameter and a predetermined line pull corresponding to the MBL of the steel wire rope). The bending fatigue resistance of the steel wire rope increases with increasing D/d ratio (= sheave diameter (D): nominal rope diameter (d)) and by reducing the line pull. The bending fatigue resistance of a steel wire rope can be increased by increasing the contact area between the steel wire rope and the sheave and by increasing the contact conditions between the rope elements, by adding a plastic layer between the IWRC and the outer strands. Due to the larger contact area between the ropes and the sheaves and due to the increased flexibility, 8- strand ropes are more resistant to bending fatigue than 6- strand ropes of a similar design.
The flexibility of a steel wire rope typically increases with increasing a number of strands and wires in the rope. The flexibility is also influenced by the lay lengths of the strands, of the rope core and the rope as well as by the gaps between wires and strands. If a rope is not flexible enough, it will have to be forced to bend around a sheave of a given diameter, which will reduce the bending fatigue life of the rope. It will also be forced to bend around a drum of a given diameter. Spooling problems might be a consequence.
When running over a sheave a rope has to be converted from a straight condition into a bent condition at the point when the rope runs onto the sheave and has to be converted again from the bent into the straight condition when it runs off the sheave. Also the bearing has to be turned. In doing so, the friction forces in the rope as well as the friction forces in the bearing have to be overcome. This leads to a change of the rope force. One describes the relationship of the rope force on both sides of the sheave as the efficiency factor and accepts that this numerical value also takes into account the friction losses of the bearing. When measuring the efficiency factor of a rope the loss of the line pull while the rope is running over the sheave is measured. An efficiency factor of 0,98, or alternatively a strength loss of 2%, is generally assumed for wire ropes.